What are ChainMaps and How to Use Them?

In Python3.3 the ChainMap class was added to the collections module. A ChainMap is ideal when you have multiple mappings that you want to consolidate into a single unit. It’s typically much faster than creating an empty dictionary and running multiple update() calls on it. To learn about the inspiration behind ChainMaps read bug report #11089.

Here’s an example of how the ChainMap signature looks:

class collections.ChainMap(*maps)

To get a concise answer of what a map is we can refer to this post on stackoverflow.

We can look at the source code from Cpython and inside a comment it states the following:

/* We accept for the argument either a concrete dictionary object,
 * or an abstract "mapping" object.  For the former, we can do
 * things quite efficiently.  For the latter, we only require that
 * PyMapping_Keys() and PyObject_GetItem() be supported.

Therefore,we can deduce that the minimal interface needed for dict(mapping) to work is .keys() and .__getitem__(). Below is an example of a ChainMap in action.

>>> from collections import ChainMap
>>> west = {'wa': 'washington', 'id': 'idaho', 'ca': 'california'}
>>> east = {'me': 'maine', 'nc': 'north carolina', 'ny': 'new york'}
>>> west_east = ChainMap(west, east)
>>> west_east
ChainMap({'wa': 'washington', 'id': 'idaho', 'ca': 'california'}, {'me': 'maine', 'nc': 'north carolina', 'ny': 'new york'})
>>> for key, value in west_east.items():
            print(key, value)
me maine
nc north carolina
ny new york
wa washington
id idaho
ca california
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